Java Toolkit
Java Launcher
Java Class Hierarchy
SyncJEdit (Java IDE)

Version 1.03, go to download directly

Java Toolkit is a powerful java tool and an easy-to-use software, which provides topmost supports for JDK tools and other popular tools. It also contains unique tools created by us. With assistances of the software, you can do many things you cannot do before.

Currently the software contains nine java tools, followings are unique abilities of the software.  

  1. Javadoc
    • Automatically searches for java files.
    • Allows to encode java files in sub-directories.
  2. Jar
    • Zip files
      • Allows to zip files in sub-directories or not.
      • Allows to include files by file types
      • Allows to exclude files by file extensions. 
    • Unzip files
      • Allows to include files by file extensions
      • Allows to exclude files by file extensions.
      • Easy to extract specified files and directories from combrssed file.  
  3. Keytool
    • Groups actions for easy using
    • Compulsory fields let you avoid mistakes
    • Convenient runtime responding makes things easier.  
  4. Javah
    • Automatically detects packages of class files
    • Stop feature checks for any mistakes
    • Displays full encoding information.
  5. Javap
    • Automatically detects package of class file
    • Automatically separates classpath
  6. Jarsigner
    • Enable and disable features make things easier
    • Error detections
  7. Ant  
    • Parsing build files as in place
    • Command are savable for reuse.
  8. EXEs 
    • Detects all tools available in JDK
    • Work-directory lets you execute all tools in places
    • All commands are savable.
  9. Find   
    This tool is uniquely created by us, which is used for finding classes, packages and checking classpath errors.
    It contains 7 finding features:
    • exact classes, similar classes and multiple-used classes
    • multiple used full-qualified-classes
    • exact packages, Similar packages and multiple-used packages
    The tool is very useful for java programmers, for example, you can use it for designing package names to avoid mistakes.

You just need to simply click a tool on Sheet-bar (see picture 1), input options on the tool's interface (see picture 2), then brss button Run on Work-bar to get all you needed.

 
(Picture 1)


(Picture 2)


Go to download page.


[Related readings]: basic knowledge of java tools.

  1. javadoc - the java API documentation Generator
    • Command:
      usage: javadoc [options] [packagenames] [sourcefiles] [@files]
      -overview <file> Read overview documentation from HTML file
      -public Show only public classes and members 
      -protected Show protected/public classes and members (default)
      -package Show package/protected/public classes and members
      -private Show all classes and members
      -help Display command line options and exit
      -doclet <class> Generate output via alternate doclet
      -docletpath <path> Specify where to find doclet class files
      -sourcepath <pathlist> Specify where to find source files
      -classpath <pathlist> Specify where to find user class files
      -exclude <pkglist> Specify a list of packages to exclude
      -subpackages <subpkglist> Specify subpackages to recursively load
      -breakiterator Compute 1st sentence with BreakIterator
      -bootclasspath <pathlist> Override location of class files loaded
      by the bootstrap class loader
      -source <release> Provide source compatibility with specified release
      -extdirs <dirlist> Override location of installed extensions
      -verbose Output messages about what Javadoc is doing
      -locale <name> Locale to be used, e.g. en_US or en_US_WIN
      -encoding <name> Source file encoding name
      -quiet Do not display status messages
      -J<flag> Pass <flag> directly to the runtime system
      Provided by Standard doclet:
      -d <directory> Destination directory for output files
      -use Create class and package usage pages
      -version Include @version paragraphs
      -author Include @author paragraphs
      -docfilessubdirs Recursively copy doc-file subdirectories
      -splitindex Split index into one file per letter
      -windowtitle <text> Browser window title for the documenation
      -doctitle <html-code> Include title for the overview page
      -header <html-code> Include header text for each page
      -footer <html-code> Include footer text for each page
      -bottom <html-code> Include bottom text for each page
      -link <url> Create links to javadoc output at <url>
      -linkoffline <url> <url2> Link to docs at <url> using package list at <url2>
      -excludedocfilessubdir <name1>:.. Exclude any doc-files subdirectories with given name.
      -group <name> <p1>:<p2>.. Group specified packages together in overview page
      -nocomment Supress description and tags, generate only declarations.
      -nodeprecated Do not include @deprecated information
      -noqualifier <name1>:<name2>:... Exclude the list of qualifiers from the output.
      -nosince Do not include @since information
      -notimestamp Do not include hidden time stamp
      -nodeprecatedlist Do not generate deprecated list
      -notree Do not generate class hierarchy
      -noindex Do not generate index
      -nohelp Do not generate help link
      -nonavbar Do not generate navigation bar
      -serialwarn Generate warning about @serial tag
      -tag <name>:<locations>:<header> Specify single argument custom tags
      -taglet The fully qualified name of Taglet to register
      -tagletpath The path to Taglets
      -charset <charset> Charset for cross-platform viewing of generated documentation.
      -helpfile <file> Include file that help link links to
      -linksource Generate source in HTML
      -sourcetab <tab length> Specify the number of spaces each tab takes up in the source
      -keywords Include HTML meta tags with package, class and member info
      -stylesheetfile <path> File to change style of the generated documentation
      -docencoding <name> Output encoding name
  2. jar - the java archive tool
    • Command:
      Usage: jar {ctxu}[vfm0Mi] [jar-file] [manifest-file] [-C dir] files ...
      Options:
      -c create new archive
      -t list table of contents for archive
      -x extract named (or all) files from archive
      -u update existing archive
      -v generate verbose output on standard output
      -f specify archive file name
      -m include manifest information from specified manifest file
      -0 store only; use no ZIP compression
      -M do not create a manifest file for the entries
      -i generate index information for the specified jar files
      -C change to the specified directory and include the following file
      If any file is a directory then it is processed recursively.
      The manifest file name and the archive file name needs to be specified
      in the same order the 'm' and 'f' flags are specified.
      Example 1: to archive two class files into an archive called classes.jar:
      jar cvf classes.jar Foo.class Bar.class
      Example 2: use an existing manifest file 'mymanifest' and archive all the
      files in the foo/ directory into 'classes.jar':
      jar cvfm classes.jar mymanifest -C foo/ .
    • Usage
      Comparing to other format, compressed jar is platform independent and  compatible with popular operating systems, easy to be managed by programmers, administrators, client, server, and in native, associate, appropriate architecture with many benefits based on zlib algorithm.
       
  3. keytool - key and certificate management tool
    • Command:
      keytool usage:
      -certreq [-v] [-protected]
      [-alias <alias>] [-sigalg <sigalg>]
      [-file <csr_file>] [-keypass <keypass>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-provide
      rClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -delete [-v] [-protected] -alias <alias>
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -export [-v] [-rfc] [-protected]
      [-alias <alias>] [-file <cert_file>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -genkey [-v] [-protected]
      [-alias <alias>]
      [-keyalg <keyalg>] [-keysize <keysize>]
      [-sigalg <sigalg>] [-dname <dname>]
      [-validity <valDays>] [-keypass <keypass>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -help
      -identitydb [-v] [-protected]
      [-file <idb_file>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      -import [-v] [-noprompt] [-trustcacerts] [-protected]
      [-alias <alias>]
      [-file <cert_file>] [-keypass <keypass>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -keyclone [-v] [-protected]
      [-alias <alias>] -dest <dest_alias>
      [-keypass <keypass>] [-new <new_keypass>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -keypasswd [-v] [-alias <alias>]
      [-keypass <old_keypass>] [-new <new_keypass>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] .._name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -list [-v | -rfc] [-protected]
      [-alias <alias>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -printcert [-v] [-file <cert_file>].
      -selfcert [-v] [-protected]
      [-alias <alias>]
      [-dname <dname>] [-validity <valDays>]
      [-keypass <keypass>] [-sigalg <sigalg>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
      -storepasswd [-v] [-new <new_storepass>]
      [-keystore <keystore>] [-storepass <storepass>]
      [-storetype <storetype>] [-providerName <name>]
      [-providerClass <provider_class_name> [-providerArg <arg>]] ...
       
  4. javah - C header and stub file generator
    • Command:
      Usage: javah [options] <classes>
      where [options] include:
      -help Print this help message and exit
      -classpath <path> Path from which to load classes
      -bootclasspath <path> Path from which to load bootstrap classes
      -d <dir> Output directory
      -o <file> Output file (only one of -d or -o may be used)
      -jni Generate JNI-style header file (default)
      -version Print version information
      -verbose Enable verbose output
      -force Always write output files
      <classes> are specified with their fully qualified names (for
      instance, java.lang.Object).
       
  5. javap - the java class file dis-assembler (disassembles class files)
    • Command:
      Usage: javap <options> <classes>...
      where options include:
      -c Disassemble the code
      -classpath <pathlist> Specify where to find user class files
      -extdirs <dirs> Override location of installed extensions
      -help Print this usage message
      -J<flag> Pass <flag> directly to the runtime system
      -l Print line number and local variable tables
      -public Show only public classes and members
      -protected Show protected/public classes and members
      -package Show package/protected/public classes
      and members (default)
      -private Show all classes and members
      -s Print internal type signatures
      -bootclasspath <pathlist> Override location of class files loaded
      by the bootstrap class loader
      -verbose Print stack size, number of locals and args for methods
      If verifying, print reasons for failure
       
  6. jarsigner - jar signing and verification tool
    • Command:
      Usage: jarsigner [options] jar-file alias
      jarsigner -verify [options] jar-file
      [-keystore <url>] keystore location
      [-storepass <password>] password for keystore integrity
      [-storetype <type>] keystore type
      [-keypass <password>] password for private key (if different)
      [-sigfile <file>] name of .SF/.DSA file
      [-signedjar <file>] name of signed JAR file
      [-verify] verify a signed JAR file
      [-verbose] verbose output when signing/verifying
      [-certs] display certificates when verbose and verifying
      [-tsa <url>] location of the Timestamping Authority
      [-tsacert <alias>] public key certificate for Timestamping Authority
      [-altsigner <class>] class name of an alternative signing mechanism
      [-altsignerpath <pathlist>] location of an alternative signing mechanism
      [-internalsf] include the .SF file inside the signature block
      [-sectionsonly] don't compute hash of entire manifest
      [-protected] keystore has protected authentication path
      [-providerName <name>] provider name
      [-providerClass <class> name of cryptographic service provider's
      [-providerArg <arg>]] ... master class file and constructor argument 
    • Description
      The jarsigner tool is used for two purposes:
      1. to sign Java ARchive (JAR) files, and
      2. to verify the signatures and integrity of signed JAR files.
      The JAR feature enables the packaging of class files, images, sounds, and other digital data in a single file for faster and easier distribution. A tool named
      jar
      enables developers to produce JAR files. (Technically, any zip file can also be considered a JAR file, although when created by jar or processed by jarsigner, JAR files also contain a META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file.)
      A digital signature is a string of bits that is computed from some data (the data being "signed") and the private key of an entity (a person, company, etc.). Like a handwritten signature, a digital signature has many useful characteristics:
      • Its authenticity can be verified, via a computation that uses the public key corresponding to the private key used to generate the signature.
      • It cannot be forged, assuming the private key is kept secret.
      • It is a function of the data signed and thus can't be claimed to be the signature for other data as well.
      • The signed data cannot be changed; if it is, the signature will no longer verify as being authentic.
      In order for an entity's signature to be generated for a file, the entity must first have a public/private key pair associated with it, and also one or more certificates authenticating its public key. A certificate is a digitally signed statement from one entity, saying that the public key of some other entity has a particular value.
      jarsigner uses key and certificate information from a keystore to generate digital signatures for JAR files. A keystore is a database of private keys and their associated X.509 certificate chains authenticating the corresponding public keys. The
      keytool
      utility is used to create and administer keystores.
      jarsigner uses an entity's private key to generate a signature. The signed JAR file contains, among other things, a copy of the certificate from the keystore for the public key corresponding to the private key used to sign the file. jarsigner can verify the digital signature of the signed JAR file using the certificate inside it (in its signature block file).
      At this time, jarsigner can only sign JAR files created by the JDK
      jar
      tool or zip files. (JAR files are the same as zip files, except they also have a META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file. Such a file will automatically be created when jarsigner signs a zip file.)
      The default jarsigner behavior is to sign a JAR (or zip) file. Use the -verify option to instead have it verify a signed JAR file.
      Compatibility with JDK 1.1
      The keytool and jarsigner tools completely replace the javakey tool provided in JDK 1.1. These new tools provide more features than javakey, including the ability to protect the keystore and private keys with passwords, and the ability to verify signatures in addition to generating them.
      The new keystore architecture replaces the identity database that javakey created and managed. There is no backwards compatibility between the keystore format and the database format used by javakey in 1.1. However,
      • It is possible to import the information from an identity database into a keystore, via a keytool command.
      • Jarsigner can sign JAR files also previously signed using javakey.
      • jarsigner can verify JAR files signed using javakey. Thus, it recognizes and can work with signer aliases that are from a JDK 1.1 identity database rather than a JDK 1.2 keystore.
      Keystore Aliases
      All keystore entities are accessed via unique aliases.
      When using jarsigner to sign a JAR file, you must specify the alias for the keystore entry containing the private key needed to generate the signature. For example, the following will sign the JAR file named "MyJarFile.jar", using the private key associated with the alias "duke" in the keystore named "mystore" in the "working" directory. Since no output file is specified, it overwrites MyJarFile.jar with the signed JAR file.
          jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore -storepass myspass
            -keypass dukekeypasswd MyJarFile.jar duke
      Keystores are protected with a password, so the store password (in this case "myspass") must be specified. You will be prompted for it if you don't specify it on the command line. Similarly, private keys are protected in a keystore with a password, so the private key's password (in this case "dukekeypasswd") must be specified, and you will be prompted for it if you don't specify it on the command line and it isn't the same as the store password.
      Keystore Location
      jarsigner has a -keystore option for specifying the URL of the keystore to be used. The keystore is by default stored in a file named .keystore in the user's home directory, as determined by the "user.home" system property. On Solaris systems "user.home" defaults to the user's home directory.
      Keystore Implementation
      The KeyStore class provided in the java.security package supplies well-defined interfaces to access and modify the information in a keystore. It is possible for there to be multiple different concrete implementations, where each implementation is that for a particular type of keystore.
      Currently, there are two command-line tools that make use of keystore implementations (keytool and jarsigner), and also a GUI-based tool named policytool. Since KeyStore is publicly available, JDK users can write additional security applications that use it.
      There is a built-in default implementation, provided by Sun Microsystems. It implements the keystore as a file, utilizing a proprietary keystore type (format) named "JKS". It protects each private key with its individual password, and also protects the integrity of the entire keystore with a (possibly different) password.
      Keystore implementations are provider-based. More specifically, the application interfaces supplied by KeyStore are implemented in terms of a "Service Provider Interface" (SPI). That is, there is a corresponding abstract KeystoreSpi class, also in the java.security package, which defines the Service Provider Interface methods that "providers" must implement. (The term "provider" refers to a package or a set of packages that supply a concrete implementation of a subset of services that can be accessed by the Java Security API.) Thus, to provide a keystore implementation, clients must implement a "provider" and supply a KeystoreSpi subclass implementation, as described in
      How to Implement a Provider for the Java Cryptography Architecture.
      Applications can choose different types of keystore implementations from different providers, using the "getInstance" factory method supplied in the KeyStore class. A keystore type defines the storage and data format of the keystore information, and the algorithms used to protect private keys in the keystore and the integrity of the keystore itself. Keystore implementations of different types are not compatible. The keytool, jarsigner, and policytool tools can be used with any type of keystore, because they only use the common application interfaces supplied by KeyStore.
      The tools currently choose a keystore implementation based simply on the value of the keystore.type property specified in the security properties file. The security properties file is called
      java.security
      , and it resides in the JDK security properties directory, java.home/lib/security, where java.home is the JDK installation directory.
      Each tool gets the keystore.type value and then examines all the currently-installed providers until it finds one that implements keystores of that type. It then uses the keystore implementation from that provider.
      The KeyStore class defines a static method named getDefaultType that lets applications and applets retrieve the value of the keystore.type property. The following line of code creates an instance of the default keystore type (as specified in the keystore.type property):
          KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());
      The default keystore type is "jks" (the proprietary type of the keystore implementation provided by Sun). This is specified by the following line in the security properties file:
          keystore.type=jks
      To have the tools utilize a keystore implementation other than the default, change that line to specify a different keystore type.
      For example, if you have a provider package that supplies a keystore implementation for a keystore type called "pkcs12", change the line to
          keystore.type=pkcs12
      Note: case doesn't matter in keystore type designations. For example, "JKS" would be considered the same as "jks".
      Alternatively, for keytool, you can specify a keystore type at the command line, via the -storetype option; and for policytool, you can specify a keystore type via the "Change Keystore" command in the Edit menu.
      Supported Algorithms and Key Sizes
      At this time, jarsigner can sign a JAR file using either
      • DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm) with the SHA-1 digest algorithm, or
      • the RSA algorithm with the MD5 digest algorithm.
      That is, if the signer's public and private keys are DSA keys, jarsigner will sign the JAR file using the "SHA1withDSA" algorithm. If the signer's keys are RSA keys, jarsigner will sign the JAR file using the "MD5withRSA" algorithm. This is only possible if there is a statically installed
      provider
      supplying an implementation for the "MD5withRSA" algorithm. (There is always a "SHA1withDSA" algorithm available, from the default "SUN" provider.)
      The Signed JAR File
      When jarsigner is used to sign a JAR file, the output signed JAR file is exactly the same as the input JAR file, except that it has two additional files placed in the META-INF directory:
      • a signature file, with a .SF extension, and
      • a signature block file, with a .DSA extension.
      The base file names for these two files come from the value of the -sigFile option. For example, if the option appears as
        -sigFile MKSIGN
      the files are named "MKSIGN.SF" and "MKSIGN.DSA".
      If no -sigfile option appears on the command line, the base file name for the .SF and .DSA files will be the first 8 characters of the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to upper case. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, the full alias name is used. If the alias name contains any characters that are not legal in a signature file name, each such character is converted to an underscore ("_") character in forming the file name.
      The Signature (.SF) File
      A signature file (the .SF file) looks similar to the manifest file that is always included in a JAR file when jarsigner is used to sign the file. That is, for each source file included in the JAR file, the .SF file has three lines, just as in the manifest file, listing the following:
      • the file name,
      • the name of the digest algorithm used (SHA), and
      • a SHA digest value.
      In the manifest file, the SHA digest value for each source file is the digest (hash) of the binary data in the source file. In the .SF file, on the other hand, the digest value for a given source file is the hash of the three lines in the manifest file for the source file.
      The signature file also, by default, includes a header containing a hash of the whole manifest file. The presence of the header enables verification optimization, as described in
      JAR File Verification.
      The Signature Block (.DSA) File
      The .SF file is signed and the signature is placed in the .DSA file. The .DSA file also contains, encoded inside it, the certificate or certificate chain from the keystore which authenticates the public key corresponding to the private key used for signing.
      JAR File Verification
      A successful JAR file verification occurs if the signature(s) are valid, and none of the files that were in the JAR file when the signatures were generated have been changed since then. JAR file verification involves the following steps:
      1. Verify the signature of the .SF file itself.
        That is, the verification ensures that the signature stored in each signature block (.DSA) file was in fact generated using the private key corresponding to the public key whose certificate (or certificate chain) also appears in the .DSA file. It also ensures that the signature is a valid signature of the corresponding signature (.SF) file, and thus the .SF file has not been tampered with.
      2. Verify the digest listed in each entry in the .SF file with each corresponding section in the manifest.
        The .SF file by default includes a header containing a hash of the entire manifest file. When the header is present, then the verification can check to see whether or not the hash in the header indeed matches the hash of the manifest file. If that is the case, verification proceeds to the next step.
        If that is not the case, a less optimized verification is required to ensure that the hash in each source file information section in the .SF file equals the hash of its corresponding section in the manifest file (seeThe Signature (.SF) File).
        One reason the hash of the manifest file that is stored in the .SF file header may not equal the hash of the current manifest file would be because one or more files were added to the JAR file (using the jar tool) after the signature (and thus the .SF file) was generated. When the jar tool is used to add files, the manifest file is changed (sections are added to it for the new files), but the .SF file is not. A verification is still considered successful if none of the files that were in the JAR file when the signature was generated have been changed since then, which is the case if the hashes in the non-header sections of the .SF file equal the hashes of the corresponding sections in the manifest file.
      3. Read each file in the JAR file that has an entry in the .SF file. While reading, compute the file's digest, and then compare the result with the digest for this file in the manifest section. The digests should be the same, or verification fails.
      If any serious verification failures occur during the verification process, the process is stopped and a security exception is thrown. It is caught and displayed by jarsigner.
      Multiple Signatures for a JAR File
      A JAR file can be signed by multiple people simply by running the jarsigner tool on the file twice, specifying the alias for a different person each time, as in:
        jarsigner myBundle.jar susan
        jarsigner myBundle.jar kevin
      When a JAR file is signed multiple times, there are multiple .SF and .DSA files in the resulting JAR file, one pair for each signature. Thus, in the example above, the output JAR file includes files with the following names:
        SUSAN.SF
        SUSAN.DSA
        KEVIN.SF
        KEVIN.DSA
      Note: It is also possible for a JAR file to have mixed signatures, some generated by the JDK 1.1 javakey tool and others by jarsigner. That is, jarsigner can be used to sign JAR files already previously signed using javakey.
      OPTIONS
      The various jarsigner options are listed and described below. Note:
      • All option names are preceded by a minus sign (-).
      • The options may be provided in any order.
      • Items in italics (option values) represent the actual values that must be supplied.
      • The -keystore, -storepass, -keypass, -sigfile , and -signedjar options are only relevant when signing a JAR file, not when verifying a signed JAR file. Similarly, an alias is only specified on the command line when signing a JAR file.
      -keystore url
      Specifies the URL that tells the keystore location. This defaults to the file .keystore in the user's home directory, as determined by the "user.home" system property.
      A keystore is required when signing, so you must explicitly specify one if the default keystore does not exist (or you want to use one other than the default).
      A keystore is not required when verifying, but if one is specified, or the default exists, and the -verbose option was also specified, additional information is output regarding whether or not any of the certificates used to verify the JAR file are contained in that keystore.
      Note: the -keystore argument can actually be a file name (and path) specification rather than a URL, in which case it will be treated the same as a "file:" URL. That is,
        -keystore filePathAndName
      is treated as equivalent to
        -keystore file:filePathAndName
      -storepass password
      Specifies the password which is required to access the keystore. This is only needed when signing (not verifying) a JAR file. In that case, if a -storepass option is not provided at the command line, the user is prompted for the password.
      Note: The password shouldn't be specified on the command line or in a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure system. Also, when typing in a password at the password prompt, the password is echoed (displayed exactly as typed), so be careful not to type it in front of anyone.
      -keypass password
      Specifies the password used to protect the private key of the keystore entry addressed by the alias specified on the command line. The password is required when using jarsigner to sign a JAR file. If no password is provided on the command line, and the required password is different from the store password, the user is prompted for it.
      Note: The password shouldn't be specified on the command line or in a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure system. Also, when typing in a password at the password prompt, the password is echoed (displayed exactly as typed), so be careful not to type it in front of anyone.
      -sigfile file
      Specifies the base file name to be used for the generated .SF and .DSA files. For example, if file is "DUKESIGN", the generated .SF and .DSA files will be named "DUKESIGN.SF" and "DUKESIGN.DSA", and will be placed in the "META-INF" directory of the signed JAR file.
      The characters in file must come from the set "A-Z0-9_-". That is, only letters, numbers, underscore, and hyphen characters are allowed.
      If no -sigfile option appears on the command line, the base file name for the .SF and .DSA files will be the first 8 characters of the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to upper case. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, the full alias name is used. If the alias name contains any characters that are not legal in a signature file name, each such character is converted to an underscore ("_") character in forming the file name.
      -signedjar file
      Specifies the name to be used for the signed JAR file.
      If no name is specified on the command line, the name used is the same as the input JAR file name (the name of the JAR file to be signed); in other words, that file is overwritten with the signed JAR file.
      -verify
      If this appears on the command line, the specified JAR file will be verified, not signed. If the verification is successful, "jar verified" will be displayed. If you try to verify an unsigned JAR file, or a JAR file signed with an unsupported algorithm (e.g., RSA when you don't have an RSA provider installed), the following is displayed: "jar is unsigned. (signatures missing or not parsable)"
      It is possible to verify JAR files signed using either jarsigner or the JDK 1.1 javakey tool, or both.
      For further information on verification, see
      JAR File Verification
      -certs
      If this appears on the command line, along with the -verify and -verbose options, the output includes certificate information for each signer of the JAR file. This information includes
      • the name of the type of certificate (stored in the .DSA file) that certifies the signer's public key,
      • if the certificate is an X.509 certificate (more specifically, an instance of java.security.cert.X509Certificate): the distinguished name of the signer, and
      • in parentheses, the alias name for the keystore entry (if any) for that signer. If the signer actually comes from a JDK 1.1 identity database instead of from a keystore, the alias name will appear in brackets instead of parentheses.
      -verbose
      If this appears on the command line, it indicates "verbose" mode, which causes jarsigner to output extra information as to the progress of the JAR signing or verification.
      -internalsf
      In the past, the .DSA (signature block) file generated when a JAR file was signed used to include a complete encoded copy of the .SF file (signature file) also generated. This behavior has been changed. To reduce the overall size of the output JAR file, the .DSA file by default doesn't contain a copy of the .SF file anymore. But if -internalsf appears on the command line, the old behavior is utilized. This option is mainly useful for testing; in practice, it should not be used, since doing so eliminates a useful optimization.
      -sectionsonly
      If this appears on the command line, the .SF file (signature file) generated when a JAR file is signed does not include a header containing a hash of the whole manifest file. It just contains information and hashes related to each individual source file included in the JAR file, as described in
      The Signature (.SF) File.
      By default, this header is added, as an optimization. When the header is present, then whenever the JAR file is verified, the verification can first check to see whether or not the hash in the header indeed matches the hash of the whole manifest file. If so, verification proceeds to the next step. If not, it is necessary to do a less optimized verification that the hash in each source file information section in the .SF file equals the hash of its corresponding section in the manifest file.
      For further information, see
      JAR File Verification.
      This option is mainly useful for testing; in practice, it should not be used, since doing so eliminates a useful optimization.
      -Jjavaoption
      Passes through the specified javaoption string directly to the Java interpreter. (jarsigner is actually a "wrapper" around the interpreter.) This option should not contain any spaces. It is useful for adjusting the execution environment or memory usage. For a list of possible interpreter options, type java -h or java -X at the command line.

      EXAMPLES
      Signing a JAR File
      Suppose you have a JAR file named "bundle.jar" and you'd like to sign it using the private key of the user whose keystore alias is "jane" in the keystore named "mystore" in the "working" directory. Suppose the keystore password is "myspass" and the password for jane's private key is "j638klm". You can use the following to sign the JAR file and name the signed JAR file "sbundle.jar":
          jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore -storepass myspass
            -keypass j638klm -signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane
      Note that there is no -sigfile specified in the command above, so the generated .SF and .DSA files to be placed in the signed JAR file will have default names based on the alias name. That is, they will be named JANE.SF and JANE.DSA.
      If you want to be prompted for the store password and the private key password, you could shorten the above command to
          jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore
            -signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane
      If the keystore to be used is the default keystore (the one named ".keystore" in your home directory), you don't need to specify a keystore, as in:
          jarsigner -signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane
      Finally, if you want the signed JAR file to simply overwrite the input JAR file (bundle.jar), you don't need to specify a -signedjar option:
          jarsigner bundle.jar jane
      Verifying a Signed JAR File
      To verify a signed JAR file, that is, to verify that the signature is valid and the JAR file has not been tampered with, use a command such as the following:
          jarsigner -verify sbundle.jar
      If the verification is successful,
          jar verified.
      is displayed. Otherwise, an error message appears.
      You can get more information if you use the -verbose option. A sample use of jarsigner with the -verbose option is shown below, along with sample output:
          jarsigner -verify -verbose sbundle.jar
                 198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
                 199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.SF
                1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.DSA
          smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 AclEx.class
          smk    849 Fri Sep 26 16:12:46 PDT 1997 test.class
            s = signature was verified
            m = entry is listed in manifest
            k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
          jar verified.
      Verification with Certificate Information
      If you specify the -certs option when verifying, along with the -verify and -verbose options, the output includes certificate information for each signer of the JAR file, including the certificate type, the signer distinguished name information (iff it's an X.509 certificate), and, in parentheses, the keystore alias for the signer. For example,
          jarsigner -verify -verbose -certs myTest.jar
                 198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
                 199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.SF
                1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.DSA
                 208 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/JAVATEST.SF
                1087 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/JAVATEST.DSA
          smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 Tst.class
            X.509, CN=Test Group, OU=Java Software, O=Sun Microsystems, L=CUP, S=CA, C=US (javatest)
            X.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)
            s = signature was verified
            m = entry is listed in manifest
            k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
          jar verified.
      If the certificate for a signer is not an X.509 certificate, there is no distinguished name information. In that case, just the certificate type and the alias are shown. For example, if the certificate is a PGP certificate, and the alias is "bob", you'd get
            PGP, (bob)
      Verification of a JAR File that Includes Identity Database Signers
      If a JAR file has been signed using the JDK 1.1 javakey tool, and thus the signer is an alias in an identity database, the verification output includes an "i" symbol. If the JAR file has been signed by both an alias in an identity database and an alias in a keystore, both "k" and "i" appear.
      When the -certs option is used, any identity database aliases are shown in square brackets rather than the parentheses used for keystore aliases. For example:
          jarsigner -verify -verbose -certs writeFile.jar
                 198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
                 199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.SF
                1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.DSA
                 199 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/DUKE.SF
                1013 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/DUKE.DSA
         smki   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 writeFile.html
            X.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)
            X.509, CN=Duke, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us [duke]
            s = signature was verified
            m = entry is listed in manifest
            k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
            i = at least one certificate was found in identity scope
          jar verified.
      Note that the alias "duke" is in brackets to denote that it is an identity database alias, not a keystore alias.
       

  7. Ant - Java based build tool
    • Command:
      Options:
      -help, -h print this message
      -projecthelp, -p print project help information
      -version print the version information and exit
      -diagnostics print information that might be helpful to
      diagnose or report problems.
      -quiet, -q be extra quiet
      -verbose, -v be extra verbose
      -debug, -d print debugging information
      -emacs, -e produce logging information without adornments
      -lib <path> specifies a path to search for jars and classes
      -logfile <file> use given file for log
      -l <file> ''
      -logger <classname> the class which is to perform logging
      -listener <classname> add an instance of class as a project listener
      -noinput do not allow interactive input
      -buildfile <file> use given buildfile
      -file <file> ''
      -f <file> ''
      -D<property>=<value> use value for given property
      -keep-going, -k execute all targets that do not depend
      on failed target(s)
      -propertyfile <name> load all properties from file with -D
      properties taking precedence
      -inputhandler <class> the class which will handle input requests
      -find <file> (s)earch for buildfile towards the root of
      -s <file> the filesystem and use it
      -nice number A niceness value for the main thread:
      1 (lowest) to 10 (highest); 5 is the default
      -nouserlib Run ant without using the jar files from
      ${user.home}/.ant/lib
      -noclasspath Run ant without using CLASSPATH
    • Intruduction
      Ant is a Java based build tool, similar to make, but with better support for the cross platform issues involved with developing Java applications. Ant is the build tool of choice for all Java projects at Apache and many other Open Source Java projects. Ant can be configured to compile your java source code files, build your deployment JAR and WAR files, unit-test code and create projects javadoc documentation.
      Ant 1.6.0 adds a lot of new features, most prominently support for XML namespaces as well as a new concept of Ant libraries that makes use of namespaces to avoid name clashes of custom tasks.

      Advantages of Ant
      • Build IN Java, USING Java, and FOR Java
      • Supports Java Tools (javac, javadoc, etc.)
      • XML Build File is Easier to Build, Read, and Maintain than MAKE file
      • Easier to Extend
      • Supports Cross Platform Java Development
      • Ant is much faster than using MAKE ? Each command is a new process
      • Ant runs within the JVM
      • Each command is executed from within JVM
      • Tools like javac are new threads ?not new process
      • Compiling large number of java source files is MUCH,MUCH faster with Ant
      • Ant's Debug Options are very helpful
      • XML much easier to read than MAKEFILE
      • User does not need to know all command line interface options to tools that can be called programmatically
      • Even OS-Specific commands can be setup in 'TaskDefs' and/or included from other sources 

      Installing Ant
      Regardless of platform, downloading Ant is the first step to installing the software. The files can be downloaded to a temporary directory and then uncompressed to any desired directory. After the download step, the process differs depending on whether you've downloaded the binary distribution or the source distribution.
      Ant does not provide an installation program; it runs from wherever you choose to copy the files and directories. Lists the directories that ultimately get created under your main Ant directory.
      Directories provided with Ant
      bin - Batch files, Perl scripts, and shell scripts for running Ant.
      docs - Ant documentation.
      lib - Libraries required by Ant to run.
      src - Source code for Ant. Provided only in the source distribution.

      Binary Installation
      The term "binary" just means that everything is compiled and packaged into JAR files for easy execution ?you don't need to compile Ant from source.
      Steps to install Installation of the binary distribution:
      1. Unzip (or untar) the distribution to the desired directory.
      2. Set the ANT_HOME environment variable to point to to the ant installation directory.
      3. Set the JAVA_HOME environment variable to point to the JDK location.
      4. Add ANT_HOME/bin to your system's PATH environment variable.

      The ant script uses the ANT_HOME and JAVA_HOME environment variables to configure the CLASSPATH used by the JVM running Ant. If these variables are not set, the startup script attempts to infer the correct values, subject to operating system limitations.

      Source Installation
      Installing the Ant source distribution requires a little more work than installing the binary distribution. As expected, downloading and uncompressing the distribution is the first step.
      You generally want to place the source files in a directory separate from any existing Ant installations. Next, ensure that JAVA_HOME points to the JDK distribution. As with the binary installation, you should also set ANT_HOME and update your PATH.
      type the following command from the source distribution directory:
      build -Ddist.dir=destination_directory dist (Windows)
      build.sh -Ddist.dir=destination_directory dist (Unix)
      The build script creates a complete binary distribution of Ant in the specified destination directory. When omitted, dist.dir defaults to build.

      Ant Basics
      Each 'Project' has a Build File, Default build file name is 'build.xml', Can Specify any name with '-buildfile' command line option, Ant's buildfiles are written in XML.
      The first or root element of any buildfile is always the <project> tag. No buildfile can be without one nor can it have more than one.

      <project name="MyProject" default="all" basedir=".">
      </project>
      The <project> tag has three attributes: name, default, and basedir.

      • The name attribute gives the project a name.
      • The default attribute refers to a target name within the buildfile. If you run Ant without specifying a target on the command line, Ant executes the default target. If the default target doesn't exist, Ant returns an error.
      • The basedir attribute defines the root directory of a project. Typically, it is ".", the directory in which the buildfile resides, regardless of the directory you're in when you run Ant. However, basedir can also define different points of reference.

      Each buildfile contains one project and at least one (default) target. Examples are: 'compile', 'test', 'install', 'clean', etc.
       
      Apache Ant
      Apache Ant is a Java-based build tool. In theory, it is kind of like Make, but without Make's wrinkles.
      Why another build tool when there is already make, gnumake, nmake, jam, and others? Because all those tools have limitations that Ant's original author couldn't live with when developing software across multiple platforms. Make-like tools are inherently shell-based -- they evaluate a set of dependencies, then execute commands not unlike what you would issue in a shell. This means that you can easily extend these tools by using or writing any program for the OS that you are working on. However, this also means that you limit yourself to the OS, or at least the OS type such as Unix, that you are working on.
      Makefiles are inherently evil as well. Anybody who has worked on them for any time has run into the dreaded tab problem. "Is my command not executing because I have a space in front of my tab!!!" said the original author of Ant way too many times. Tools like Jam took care of this to a great degree, but still have yet another format to use and remember.
      Ant is different. Instead of a model where it is extended with shell-based commands, Ant is extended using Java classes. Instead of writing shell commands, the configuration files are XML-based, calling out a target tree where various tasks get executed. Each task is run by an object that implements a particular Task interface.
      Granted, this removes some of the expressive power that is inherent by being able to construct a shell command such as `find . -name foo -exec rm {}`, but it gives you the ability to be cross platform -- to work anywhere and everywhere. And hey, if you really need to execute a shell command, Ant has an <exec> task that allows different commands to be executed based on the OS that it is executing on.

      Concepts, article, information Contents

      1. Developing in a Standard Directory Tree
      2. Creating Standard Ant Targets and What They Should Do
      3. Exploring Ant Data Types
      4. Listeners and Loggers
      5. Predefined Properties
      6. The Ant Command Line
      7. Summary
    Article Description Joey Gibson, Kirk Pepperdine, Alan Williamson, and Andrew Wu study of a useful standard development directory tree, cover the basic targets of almost every Ant build file, data types, listeners and loggers, and the Ant command line.

    We'll begin this chapter with a description of a standard development directory structure. We'll show you what is generally used for different types of projects and explain why you should consider adopting it for your own projects.
    What we'll be showing you is a common structure, but there are other layouts that you may choose to use. Ant makes it easy to work with just about any layout you can dream up.
    We'll then move on to more "standard" stuff. In this case, it's a discussion of what to call your targets. There are certain targets that just about every build file you run across will contain, and there are others that just make good sense. We'll discuss all of these.
    Next, we'll discuss what are known as Ant data types including tags to generate sets of files matching certain criteria, path-like structures, and filters.
    Moving on, we'll cover loggers and listeners. These facilities provide the capability to control how your builds are logged (loggers) and to trigger behavior when certain lifecycle events occur (listeners).
    Finally, we will discuss those properties that are defined automatically by Ant, how they are useful, and the command line arguments that Ant accepts.
    Unlike most of the other chapters in this book, there are no Java source files that can be downloaded from the publisher's Web site, nor is there a working build file. The reason for this is the sheer volume of topics that will be covered and the near impossibility of devising a project incorporating all of them. You can, however, download a build file that contains each of the Ant snippets that will be presented so that you can paste them in to your own build files. This file won't be able to run by itself. Just think of it as a snippet repository.
     
    Developing in a Standard Directory Tree
    With a title like that for this section, you're probably thinking this sounds about as exciting as reading a dictionary, but hold on! This is stuff you need to know. In this section, we'll to cover a standard directory tree structure for your projects. Obviously, there isn't actually a standard for this type of thing yet, but this is a good starting point.Directory Tree for Simple Projects
    Let's begin by talking about the base structure for any type of project and then move into Web applications. For most applications, you'll have source code (otherwise, why would you need Ant?) that must be compiled, and you'll also have .class files that must go somewhere. You'll (probably) create some sort of archive file and it must live somewhere. If you're running unit tests on your code (you are, aren't you?), you'll want to store the output and subsequent reports someplace as well. If you use a custom MANIFEST.MF file, you'll want to store it somewhere, too. All these files and directories should live under a project directory. For example, if you have a project called "My Project," you would store everything related to this project in a directory called myproject. Where the project directory lives is up to you. I generally have all of my project directories under a src directory. We'll lay out a simple project called myproject. Listing 3.1 shows how you might lay this out.
    task1 param1="value1" param2="value2">
    <task2 param3="value3" > </target>
    The <target> tag has three attributes: name, depends, if, unless, descriptiondefault, and basedir.

    • The name attribute gives the target a name.
    • The depends attribute are a comma-separated list of names of targets on which this target depends.
    • The if attribute the name of the property that must be set in order for this target to execute.
    • The unless attribute the name of the property that must not be set in order for this target to execute.
    • The description attribute a short description of this target's function.

    Targets must have a name and may have several additional attributes that determine when and if the target actually gets executed. The target is made up of one or more Tasks like invoke a command or another program. Targets can have Dependencies, examples: 'install' depends on 'compile', Targets can handle cascading dependencies, each Dependency is handled only once, dependency executed only if required.
    It should be noted, however, that Ant's depends attribute only specifies the order in which targets should be executed - it does not affect whether the target that specifies the dependency(s) gets executed if the dependent target(s) did not (need to) run.
    Ant tries to execute the targets in the depends attribute in the order they appear (from left to right). Keep in mind that it is possible that a target can get executed earlier when an earlier target depends on it.A target gets executed only once, even when more than one target depends on it .
    A <task> is a piece of code that can be executed.
    A task can have multiple attributes (or arguments, if you prefer). The value of an attribute might contain references to a property. These references will be resolved before the task is executed. Tasks have a common structure:
    <name attribute1="value1" attribute2="value2" ... />
    where name is the name of the task, attributeN is the attribute name, and valueN is the value for this attribute.
    Each task element of the buildfile can have an id attribute and can later be referred to by the value supplied to this. The value has to be unique. Each Task is bound to a Java class file that Ant executes, passing to it any arguments or sub-elements defined with that task. The Ant tool is extensible and it allows you to create your own tasks

    Typical build.xml Tasks
    init, sets properties, prepare, creates directories, build, builds the system, package, creates jar file, install, installs an application to Tomcat or other engine, deploy, deploy a WAR engine, reload, update previously installed application engine, redeploy.

    Properties
    A project can have a set of properties. These might be set in the buildfile by the property task, or might be set outside Ant. A property has a name and a value; the name is case-sensitive. Properties may be used in the value of task attributes. This is done by placing the property name between "${" and "}" in the attribute value. For example, if there is a "builddir" property with the value "build", then this could be used in an attribute like this: ${builddir}/classes. This is resolved at run-time as build/classes.

    Built-in Properties
    Ant provides access to all system properties as if they had been defined using a <property> task. For example, ${os.name} expands to the name of the operating system. For a list of system properties see the Javadoc of System.getProperties.
    In addition, Ant has some built-in properties:

    basedir the absolute path of the project's basedir (as set with the basedir attribute of <project>).
    ant.file the absolute path of the buildfile.
    ant.version the version of Ant
    ant.project.name the name of the project that is currently executing; it is set in the name attribute of <project>.
    ant.java.version the JVM version Ant detected; currently it can hold


     
     




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